Tuesday, December 21, 2010

December 21-Diffusion and Osmosis

Today we started out class with Mr. Finley telling us that we would do an activity by looking at pond water and the organisms after Christmas break. Then he had us read a lesson in the cells textbook, and take notes on it. These were my notes:

  • Diffusion-the process by which molecules spread out, or move from areas where there are many of them to areas where are fewer of them.

  • Diffusion occurs because gases, liquids, and solids are in constant motion in all directions, which naturally spreads them out until they are evenly distributed

  • Diffusion helps cells maintain homeostasis, such as the oxygen needed for breathing enters cells by diffsuion

  • The concentration of a substance is how many particles of the substance there are in a volume

  • Example-If you dissolve 9 grams of sugar in a liter of water, the concentration is 9 grams/liter

  • Diffusion occurs more rapidly when the difference in concentration between the two areas is higher and slower when the difference in concentration is lower

  • Small molecules (such as oxygen) can pass through the gaps in a cell membrane by diffusion

  • Example, in photosynthesis oxyen not used for cellular respiration passes out of the cell by diffusion

  • Diffusion is an example of Passive Transport which is when materials move without using cell energy

  • Cells benefit from passive transport because it allows cells to move materials with out having to expend any energy

  • A cell can only diffuse across a cell membrane if the substance can dissolve in the lipids that make it up

  • Osmosis is when water moves through cell membrane through diffusion

  • If the concentration of water is higher outside than inside then water will move into the cell, and vice versa

  • Example-when you don't water a plant it wilts because water leaves the leaves by osmosis but when you water the soil because there is more water concentrated in the soil than the leaves water goes into the leaves

After we took notes on the reading, we had to answer questions about it. These were my answers"

1. Diffusion and omnosis are similar because they both deal with cells spreading out and moving to another area, just that with osmosis there is water moving through a cell membrane.

4. The water will enter the stems of the boquet of carnations through osmosis.

6. Water diffuses into the protozoa.

After the questions were done, we studied for our test until the end of the period.

This is important because we'll need to know it for the test on this unit. Diffusion and osmosis are two important processes that we will need to know in the future, and it's a very good idea to learn them now.

Click on me for a link to a page about diffusion.


Monday, December 20, 2010

12/20/10 7th Grade Period 8

Today at the start of class Mr. Finley said that the test that was suppose to be on Tuesday, 12/21/10, is changed to Wednesday, 12/22/10. It was changed because Mr. Finley cannot do an 8th grade study session on the same morning as a 7th grade study session. So, our study session will be Wednesday morning, the day of the test. Soon after that Mr. Finley started to continue the topic from Friday, which was the cell membrane one. He started talking about how the blue dye mixes with the water. Some things that happened were mixing, swirling, and spreading, from Friday. Mr. Finley started to tell us that with a cell when there are more molecules on the outside more will try to get in until its equal in both sides. After that we watched a movie on Cells.

Notes on Movie-

The first thing that they talked about were eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have areas inside of it that separate off from the rest of the cell by membranes. The areas I am talking about include nucleus, lots of mitochondria, and other organelles such as Golgi Body. To learn more about that review the packet, Cell Classification Article. The Prokaryotic cell doesn't have a nucleus mitochondria or any other kind of membrane. The cell membrane is the boundary of the cell. Nucleus and ribosomes are made in a cell membrane. The Cytoplasm has most of the organelles, it takes up more than half the cell in most cells. Mitotibulis are hollow, it can be taken apart. Mitochondria are when organic breaking cells break down. If you zoomed into Mitochondria you would see a small little Mitochondrian. Chloroplasts absorb light energy, a type of palstic. Mitochondria is cells saving a lot of energy to save mitochondrian in them. The funtion of chloroplasts is when photosynthesis conducts. The ribosomes form consists of protein and RNA. The Smooth ER has no ribosomes, transports fat, and limits detosifies drugs. Golgi Apparatus consists vesicles like a processing station. Lisisomes get rid of organelles, vacuole maintain plant cells, pressure and provide stability to the plant.

Friday, December 17, 2010

12/17/10 Cell Vocabulary

Today we started by going over the cell parts and functions. Mr. Finley then showed us in the middle of our discussion how the blue dye mixes with the water. Some observations were that it was spreading, mixing, and swirling.

-stores and protects the DNA; determines what characteristics the cell needs
Cell Wall-provides the shape; protects the cell(on plant cell and bacteria)
Cell Membrane-allows small molecules to pass freely while large molecule move by transport proteins; flexible for ease of motion
Ribosomes-takes RNA and turns it into protein
Vacuole-stores food and water; releases food too
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum-just a highway system
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum-many different functions
Chloroplasts-responsible for photosynthesis
Mitochondria-used to provide energy to the cell; has molecules and proteins
Lysosomes-breakdown proteins
Golgi Apparatus-tags molecules so they can be moved; molecules and organelles are attracted to each other
Cytoplasm-transports proteins; maintains the cells shape; keeps cells and organelles in place

We spent the whole class time going over the vocabulary. But it was worth it!

Extra Vocab:
Synthesis-to build or make
Lysis-to breakdown or destroy
~Erica W~

Thursday, December 16, 2010

12/16/10 Science

Today in class we started out watching a video of a cell. We had to take notes on a few questions. 1: What do you see? 2: Is it living or nonliving? 3: What kind of cell is it? 4: Is it single or multi-cellular? My answers were, 1. I saw something moving on a surface. It kept bumping into brown rusty colored things. It looked like the thing was eating them. The thing had a clear outer layer that looked like it was keeping it's parts together. The inside was brown and it spiraled to move. It had hairs too called cilia. 2. I said it was living because it looks like it has the characteristics from what I saw in the video. 3. It has cilia so it's an animal cell. There are compartments and a nucleus so it's a eukaryotic cell. 4. It is single celled because there was only one nucleus. After that, we watched another video to prove some points. It was a video of the same type of cells eating yeast that was dyed red. Below is a video of an animal cell I thought was interesting.

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Activity-Talya Bendarsky

At the beginning of class we talked about how Mr.Finley's website will be down until January 1st. This is because the website is getting a new layout. People will have to remember to write their homework down during class. We will be able to use the blog, and we will still be able to see his twitter. Some of the things will still be on there. Also, he told us that he replaced our old quiz's with the averaged quiz so that will be on our grades. We had to write down what all of the words on the board do or what they are used for but not the definition. The words on the board were Cell Wall, Cell Membrane*, Ribosomes*, Endoplasmic Reticulum*, mitochondria*, nucleus*, vacuole, cytoplasm, chloroplasts*, lysosomes, and Golgi Apparatus. The words with * after them are important. The nucleus is used to store the DNA. The Cell Membrane is used as a protective barrier for the cell. The Cell Wall is used to keep the cell in the same shape. The Ribosomes are used as a site of protein synthesis. The Smooth ER is used to store important things. The Rough ER is used to collect Protein. Mitochondria is used to provide energy to the cell. The vacuole is used to help the release of waste products and digestion. The cytoplasm is used to help the transport of proteins. Chloroplasts are used to make the cell green by using chlorophyll. Lysosomes are used to degrade proteins. Lastly, the Golgi Apparatus is used to pack macromolecules so that they can go somewhere else.

Talya Bendarsky

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

12-14-10 Period 8

Today we found out we have a test next tuesday! We will be getting a study guide later on today. We also went over cells. We went over Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Animal cells only have (here are a few): Neculeus, Golgi Aparatis, Vaculous, Neculous, Cytoskelton. Next we talked about a plant cell! The Animal cells do not have a Cell Walls or Cloroplasts, Large central vacule. Next we talked about bacteria! (Prokarotic cell). Plant (Eukaryotic) cells do not have flagella, but Aniaml (Prokarotic) Cells can have them. Some things bacteria have and plant and animal cells dont have: Capstole, DNA, and Pilla. We also talked about a Euglena, it is Eukaryotic Cell. Euglena is a orgism, it is the ONLY animal cell that has Cloroplasts.Euglena can make it own food and eat other foods. This orgisms is a animal cell with plant cell charastics.
Here are the exact pictures we look at today but with labels:




Maddie :)

Friday, December 10, 2010

Today in class Mr. Finley wasn't here and left things to do.

  • read article

  • take notes

  • answer question sheet

  • if not done, work on it for homework

Here are some notes...

  • cells work together or alone

  • cells are in all living things

  • all living things need at least 1 or more cells

  • cells could be unicellular or multicellular

  • unicellular- working alone

  • multicellular- working with others

  • there are two kingdoms of unicellular ( archaea, bacteria)

  • also for multicellular... animals, plants, and fungi

  • 1 kingdom that mixes with both unicellular and multicellular...the protista

  • ALL living things are divided into two major groups depending on how their cells are set up

Those are just some notes! :^)

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

12-7-10 Notes/Blog

Today in class we went over the homework we had last night and we also discussed the chart/list that we made. NOTES:

If you missed class, we went over our homework, but we didn't go over fossil yet. Also, if you saw the bottom of the worksheet, there are two tree objects, only do the top one.

Mr. Finley said something at the end of class, "We are made up of elements, the elements are made up of atoms, and ATOMS ARE NON-LIVING!!!!" So I have a question for you, if we are made up of non-living substances, how are we living?


Monday, December 6, 2010

Lexi- Cells Alive/Dead

Today we learned that our class is the only one who handed in all of our presentations so we have to re-vote. You allowed to vote for yourself if you feel your presentation deserves it. Everyone better study for another cell labeling quiz! It's coming up soon so learn as many parts as you can. For homework we had to think about evidence you might have to support the idea that something might be dead on the organism level but living on the cellular level. We talked about it for a while and Will came up with the idea of if you died the cells could live on their own but would die off quickly. Kevin said that some cells would still be living and that mainly your brain and heart need to shut down for you to die. Erica added on to what Kevin said and said that some cells don't need a host. Does that mean that some cells are organisms? Will brought up an important topic, if your organs could live a while after you die Lloyd said that cells survive from leftover nutrients about as long as any person would survive with food, once there is no more food the cells die. We are a multicellular oganism so we are not made up of other organisms.
Picture above is of living cells (in color) and dead cells (in red)

Friday, December 3, 2010

Characteristics of Life, Organisms, and Cells

Today, we began the class checking our homework. We discussed how living things have characteristics of life, nonliving never had characteristics of live, dead things once had characteristics of life, and dormant could have c.o.l. Also, we discussed how biotic (bio which means life) was a synonym for living thing and abiotic was another name for nonliving. We also discussed we don't take antibiotics (against living) if we have viruses since viruses are nonliving. They are designed to kill bacteria instead. We take vaccines for viruses instead. After talking about c.o.l, we talked about the homework. We concluded that the second person was right, who stated cells were living, but plant cells couldn't live on their own because they are a multicelluar cell which means they can't survive on its own. They need other organisms to live.


Thursday, December 2, 2010

In the beginning of class we started off by working on our smart notebook projects. In this projects we are making slide shows to explain the needs for life to third graders. each group has about 4 members and each of us is responsible for two or more slides. Each slide explains a different need for life. At the end of the slide show we also make interactive games to quiz the viewers. This quiz covers all of what you can learn from the slides. Next we got back our pop quiz es on the parts of cells.