Tuesday, April 26, 2011

April 25 Brendan T.

We started our class by getting back our tests and lab reports from February. Then, we opened up our blood lab sheets and went over our questions. Here is the link with the questions, but the answers are here.

1. You need to know your blood type in case you need a transfer, and you have to make sure you receive the right blood. If you don't, your blood will clog and you will die.
Skipped #2
3. AB
4. 0
5. An allele is a  form of a type of a gene. For example, height might be the gene. One form might be tall, and another might be short. We learned that co-dominance means that two alleles are dominant, as co means that two things have the same authority or power. A and B blood types are co-captains, because they are both dominant. Since I is dominant, then i must be recessive. But, since there are two types of dominant             (A and B), we have to put an Aor a B next to the I when expressing it.

Do your HW!

Brendan Turner
Blog #6
Go Hornets!

Thursday, April 21, 2011

Science Class - 4/21/11

Today we reviewed that we use the letter I to represent  blood. We use uppercase letters to represent any dominant traits. We use lowercase letters to represent recessive genes. An example of a blood script would be I followed by a smaller capital letter next to it. That represents one allele. The heterozygous for blood type would be Ii. If it was a specific blood type, that letter would go next to the I. Mr. Finley also announced we would have a quiz on Tuesday. After that, we reviewed the Virtual Blood Typing Lab with our partner. We discussed some of the questions with our partner. It is important to know someone's blood type because it's important to know which type of blood you can get and which type of blood you can donate. A person with Rh+ blood can recieve from a person with Rh- blood. Although, an Rh+ blood can't donate to a Rh- blood person because the Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies. Blood type O can donate to all types of blood: A, B, AB, and O, but it can only recieve blood from itself. Blood type AB can recieve from all the blood types. Here is a blood type chart:

HZ (5)

Wednesday, April 20, 2011


Today in class, all we were supposed to do was contiune the worksheet from yesterday and play a blood game.

Worksheet with website to go along with it :

Virtual Blood Typing Lab     
When you click on this either press open or save! 

Blood Typing Game Website:


Katie Gomez Blog #5

Monday, April 18, 2011

April 18

First, Mr. Finley had us answer this question: If there are two heterozygous genes with tall being the dominant trait, what is the chance of getting a short child?

There is a 25% chance of getting a short child.

Punnet Square                                                     
                   T             t
                T  TT         Tt
                t   Tt          tt

After that, we did the Inspiron Gum Experiment.  Everyone had to take a piece of paper with the flavor on it and taste it.  Then we had to describe what it tasted like, if it was good or bad, and if it was strong or weak.  15 people said it tasted bad and 5 people said they couldn't taste anything.  After the experiment, Mr. Finley said that it wasn't a gum flavor it was a chemical.  Every slip of paper had the same thing on it and wheter you can taste it our not is a gene. 
He asked us these questions:
1. Is this trait dominant or recessive?
This trait is dominant because most of the class can taste it.

2. What are the pehenotypes?
The phenotypes are being able to taste it and not being able to taste it.

3. What are the genotypes?
The genotypes for being able to taste it are CC and Cc.  The genotype for not being able to taste it is cc.

Here is a link that tells you more about this chemical: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/455706/phenylthiocarbamide-tasting

JR 5th blog


Tuesday, April 5, 2011

April 5

First, Mr. Finley came around to check our homework.  It was on watching the video about Punnett Squares.  Just so you know, if you didnt try making the squares, you should go back and do them. Today we began tallking about out genotypes.

YY->yellow                 SS->squarey
Y->yellow                    sS->square
yy->blue                       ss->round

Tall-TT, Tt                    Short-tt

Pink body-PP, Pp
Yellow body-pp
The Punnett Square (Spongebob)       


B. 2 out of 4 or 50%
C. 2 out of 4 or 50%

*Punnett Squares indicate nothing more than the CHANCES for 1 child!*

Homozygous->CC, cc
Homozygous domaint->CC
Homozygous recessive->cc

Here is the link the the Pea Soup! experiment we have been working with!

Erica Wirth (5th blog)

Friday, April 1, 2011


Today, we talked about the pea plant experiment online. One parent was yellow and wrinkled and was Yy rr and the other was green and smooth and was yy RR. The children were all smooth and 2 were green and 2 were yellow. The green ones were yy rR and the yellow ones were Yy and rR. Then we figured out that you have to at least one capital R for it to be smooth and at least one capital Y to be yellow. To test this you can go to this website: http://sonic.net/~nbs/projects/anthro201/exper/experiment.cgi?begin=yes We also figured out how
 to get the r and y combinations by using the distributive property Ex. Parents yy yY
                                                                                                                     rr rR  y(yY)+y(yY) and doing the same with the Rs
                                                                                                                              yy yY yy yY
Or by using a tree diagram.

So you would pick a parent and choose one of the letters, and then from there you would choose another letter from the other parent and you have one child. You do that until you've made all possible combinations.

Noah Kudman #5

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

March 30

Today, Mr. Finley had us try to figure out what he wanted us to figure out why he asked us the homework questions after we went over it. We thought it was because some genes were recessive, as in they were in our parents but maybe didn't show up in them. Then they got passed down to us and we showed them. Mr. Finley asked the class who could make their tongue into a U, and almost everybody could. Then Mr. Finley said that we weren't exactly understanding the ideas of dominant and recessive genes, and he told us we would look at the pes again. We had to try to figure out the hypothesis that would allow us to predict the genetic combinations the children would have. Our hypothesis was that: To find the combinations of genes in the children, you need to combine the first gene with both genes in the second pea's genes.

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

March 29

Today, Mr. Finley announced we would get our tests back soon. The last person just took it. Then we started talking about growth. Mr. Finley had Rachel come up and compared them. Although they went through mostly the same processees, they were very different because they had different chromosomes. Then Mr. Finley made us do an activity on his website. We did the pea soup experiment. We had several pea plants with different combinations of chromosomes. We had to write down what we noticed about the peas and the simulation. Here's what I thought about the peas:

  • Two parents

  • Four children

  • Both parents are brown

  • Three children are brown

  • One child is green

  • Smooth and wrinkly textures

  • Some parents and children are similar or identical

  • They all have a combination of Y, y, R, and r chromosomes

This is what I noticed about the simulation:

  • Use the radio buttons to mate two pea plants

  • You can mate a plant with itself

Then we had to try and make a hypothesis that would allow us to correctly predict the kinds of peas that would be born when we breeded certain peas. My first hypothesis is that if you breed two plants with the same texture or color together, all the children will be the same texture and color. These were the results:

Parents: yellow smooth, yellow smooth

Children: Green smooth, yellow smooth, yellow smooth, yellow wrinkled

My next hypothesis was if there is at least one Y, it will be yellow. If there is at least one R, it will be smooth. If it's yy it is green, and if it's rr it will be wrinkled. Another hypothesis I had was that there will always be at least one exact copy of one of the parents among the children. These were both proven.

Parents: yy RR, yY Rr

Children: yy RR, yY Rr, yy RR, yY RR

We know now that all children will be made up of some combination of their parents' DNA. At the end of the period we figured out the hypothesis. Finley said we would talk about it the next day.

-LG Blog 4

Monday, March 28, 2011

3/28/11 Discussion on Meiosis

Today in class, Mr. Finley told us we were going to get our most previous test back as soon as the last person took their test. Talking about tests, we will have one, a week from tesday. Hopefully, before the end of the marking period(April 20) we will get back our lab reports.

Then, we continued off with our human example/simulation of meiosis which we left off on thursday(check thursday's blog if you are confused). We continued with prophaseII, in which the nucleur membrane disappears, chromosomes condense, and the two centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell. After that, we decided to only focas on one cell because there were too many people. Then in metaphaseII the humans lined up on either side of the plate and the spindle fibers were attached to them. During anaphaseII, the people in the middle of the room (chromosomes) seperate (besty stage). Lastly, during telophaseII, the nucleur membranes reapear, forming four cells. We did not go over cytokinesesII because it was not neccasry, since everyone understood that the nucleaur membranes split...etc.

The more important discussion was when we started to take notes on reproduction! YAY! At first we talked about a single celled organism such as a peremecium cell and how it goes through mitosis to reproduce. We compared single cell reproduction to mutlicell reporduction, such as us humans. We said that the process of reproduction/meiosis starts off when two haploid cells( containing 50% DNA) such as an egg and a sperm cell, meet up in the same place at the same time. When the two cells join together, they form a zygote. After that, the zygote goes through mitosis to create more cells and to get bigger. The zygote starts to become into an infant. To add on, the infant goes through even more mitosis to become an adolescent. Especially during this time of a males life, around 12-17 years old, meiosis starts occuring in his testes. Keep in mind that mitosis is still hapening everywhere else in the body to repair and create more cells. Some key terms that you should know are that there are three different gametes(sex cells); eggs, sperm, and pollin. Continuing with the process of meiosis, when a adolecsent grows and becomes a man, he marries a woman and happily engages sexual intercourse. The purpose is to basically get the two halpoid cells in the same place at the same time. Once they meet and join they create a process called fertilization. Then the whole process of meiosis repeats. However, the main difference between a female going through meiosis than a male, is that she does it when she is in her stage of a zygote and an infant. Therefore, by now she would already be done with it.

I hope I have made you more clear on this topic that we learned today. If you have any questions, leave a comment and I will try my best to reply.


#4 blog

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Today we did an experiment directing and acting out meiosis. We have some people on tables acting as a cell membrane around the people who are inside acting as changing chromosomes. We are using string to symbolize spindle fibers. the string is attached to the chromosomes, that will pull apart the chromosomes. we used the people on the inside to made into chromosomes that then group into homologous pairs and we used the rest of the people on the inside are centriols. The homologous pairs are lined up along the equator in metaphase 1.The spindle fibers have attached to the homologous pairs.we acted out each step up to prophase and will continue on Monday. Above are example pictures of the simulation. See if you can identify what these stages are. "in comment"

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Crossing over...

1)Crossing Over= two homologous pairs connect and exchange/switch a part of the homologous. Then a new cell is made.

2)Why are your siblings different from you?

You have different chromosomes because of crossing and everyone else because now we have different positives and negatives, so if everyone was exactly the same, only the same thing would be able to be contributed. This is called diversity.

Phases of Meiosis

1) Metaphase-Homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrad

2) Anaphase I- Spindles Fibers move homologous chromosomes to oppisite sides

3)Cytokinsis II- Nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter cells formed

4) Metaphase II- Chromosomes line up alomg equator, not in homologous pairs

5)Prophase I- Crossing over occurs

7)Anaphase II-Chromotids seperate

8) Metaphase I- Homologs line up alone equator.

9) Cytokinesis I- Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed.

R.R. #5

Tuesday, March 22, 2011


First, we went over homework. The similarities and differences of meiosis and mitosis are:

metaphase 1 the actual chromosomes are lined up
100% of DNA at the end
2 cells are created
(diploid cells)
(skin cell)

more steps homologous pairs
exchange DNA
(called crossing)
(prophase 1)
metaphase 1
homologous pairs are lined up
50% of DNA at the end
4 haploid cells created
(pollen,sperm, egg)

both divide
DNA chromosomes similar stages
meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis
both deal with chromosomes not pairs

Then, we did a class demonstration, the homologous pairs line up, then trade DNA with eachother. They split into four different cells. One cell has all Will, another one has all Carter, another one has half Carter half Will, and another with half Will half Carter.

That was our discussion today.

This is my 4th time blogging
Lexi P8

Friday, March 18, 2011

March 18th, 2011 Carter Stumpf

First, to start of class we started discussing the homeowkr from last night. The homework was to anwser three questions on the website. The questions were 1. If egg and sperm cells merge how much chromosones will each one have? 2. How does this relate to homologous pairs of chromosones? and 3. Could we start with a normal cell, go through mitosis and get a sperm/egg cell? Why not?. A homologous pair of chromosones are a set of chromosones that represent the same traits. One chromosone comes from the sperm and the second one comes from the egg. Without one set of chromosones you could have disabilities. Sperm and egg cell combine to make the zygote. A normal cell can't go into mitosis and make a sperm cell because when it goes into mitosis the normal cell would want to make another copy of a normal cell not a sperm or egg cell so therefore it is not possible. The purpose of miosis is to only create a sperm or egg cell. Males only get miosis to start happening when they hit puberty and females are born with it completed. A stemcell is a cell that has deicided what it is going to be yet. Then, Mr. Finley passed out a handout talking about Meiosis. Eukaryotic cells can only reproduce asexually. Then the class ended with a suprise fire drill so therefore we had to finish reading the handout outside.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Rohan Mallya 3/17/11

Today, we learned how the first cell of a baby was created. Here are the steps:

1. First, the male and female must go through intercourse (sex). Remember: sex is not reproduction! It is merely a delivery meathod so that the sperm and egg cells are at same place at the same time!

2. Next, the sperm cell has to fertilize egg cell in the womb. During fertilization, the two cell literally merge together. The egg is always an "x" chromosome and the sperm is either an "x" or a "y" chromosome. Each cell has half of the 46 chromosomes (23 homologous pairs). But, we learned that when you go through sex, the woman does not always end up pregnant. This is could be because the woman used birth controls, which keep the the sperm and egg cells from being in the same place at the same time. Or, this could be because the spaerm and the egg are never end up being in the same place at the same time.

3. The first cell of the new organism is formed.

Finley told us that for plants, the sex cells are the egg and the pollen. The pollen is kind of like the sperm cell, but for plants.

Here's a video to clear this all up:

There might be some vocabulary you might not know.


Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Science Class Period 8 3/16/11

Today we are finising up our presentations from yesterday. Mr.Finley checked our classwork/homework from yesterday. He is also checked the review from us picking the better simulation online. It was a video and then a video animation on youtube.com. If you didn't do the review, then you can do it tonight and turn it in for partial credit. Mr.Finley helped the groups move along with their presentations if they were having issues with their pictures or explantions. We went over the questions which were:

1) How does binary fission relate to cell division?
Binary fission and mitosis are both about the division of the cell, but binary fission seperates bacteria in prokaryotic cells. Cell division seperates eukaryotic cells.

2) What is a bud, and where does it form on an organism that reproduces asexually?
Budding is where a new cell starts to form on the side of a membrane of another cell, then it grows out the side, then after it is very large, it just seperates.

3) Compare sexual and asexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because in sexual reproduction, you need two cells, but in asexual reproduction, it reproduces faster, and it is only one cell. in sexual reproduction, the offspring looks similar to their parents. You would look identical in asexual reproduction since it's only one cell.

After we went over the questions we took notes on chromosomes in karyotypes. Which is a picture of your chromosones, and they are all single strands. They all have two strands. There are 46 all in total in the human body. There are 23 pairs of chromosones, the pairs are homologous, which means the same, they represent the same pair. Down syndrome is when we are missing one of the pair of chromosomes from the 21st pair. The pairs 1 through 22 we call autosomes. Sex chromosomes are either xx or xy. Xx is a girl, and xy is a boy.

Monday, March 14, 2011

March, 14th 2011 Talya

At the begining of class we had time to finish up our power points. Once we were all done with our power points Mr.Finley told us we had to present them. Each group presented their slide shows and Mr.Finley went over them. If any power point had some problems or incorrect information Mr.Finley asked the group what they saw was wrong with it and we would correct it together. Since we took about thirty minutes in groups to work on our power points and about ten minutes presenting them we didn't have time to do anything else. We also didn't have time to have every group go. Mr.Finley told us that it is not good to make your power point have too much going on. If you want it's okay to put a little movement but we shouldn't let it take over the presentation. Also, he didn't want us reading off of the board. He said it could be good to bullet point the main topics and then we could go deeper in them but it is boring for the audience to listen to us saying what they can read.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

March 10th,2011 CJS

Today, to start off class we seperated into groups and discussed the classwork from yesterday. The classwork was that we had to read and anwser the questions on page 97 in the science textbook. The questions had to deal with looking at a graph which distributed the time of cell divison. Also, we had to design an experiment which had to deal with testing to see if cell divison happened faster in hotter temperatures. Then Mr. Finley started to go into detail about what happens in each stage of cell divison which are prophase, metaphase,anaphase, and telophase. First, we started with prophase. in the beginning of prophase, the nucleus breaksdown and dissapears. Then, the chromomatin coils up and turn into a chromosones.. A chromomatin is a strand of dna. Chromosones are dna coiled up. The last thing that happens in prophase is that the centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell. Centrioles start to create spindle fibers as well. There are only two centrioles in the cell. Then we talked about metaphase. The first thing that happens in metaphase is that the spindle fibers get fully created. Next, the centrioles shoot out spindle fibers. Then, the spindle fibers connect to the chromosones in the kinetocore(centromere). A centromere(kinetocore) is the middle of the chromosone. Then the spindle fibers line up the chromosones in the middle of the cell. Then the next stage in the cell cycle is Anaphase. To start anaphase the spindle fibers pull the chromosones apart to opposite sides of the cell and they slowly start to break apart. Then telophase happens. In telophase the nucleaus starts to reform again. Then, the last part of telophase is if it is a plant cell it forms a cell wall and if it is an animal cell the membrane starts to break apart. Then class ended and that is where are notes for the day stopped.


Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Today in class we started off where we left off yesterday, the three groups. The first group was the textbook group we had to answer a few questions. To find the questions go to page 97 in the Cells textbook and answer questions 1-8.
After that we went to the group and went over the stages, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. We had a picture on the smart board and each cell was a different stage. Anaphase was when two cells are attached and are then pulled away from each other. An example to remember this is calling it the best friend stage. The best friends are being pulled away from each other. Another stage is prophase which is when a cell is crowded by a bunch of other cells. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up. Telophase is when the nucleus is formed. Cytokinesis is seperation of the cell membrane. After that we watched the simulation, took notes, and drew pictures of each stage. To watch the simulation go to the following link:http://cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm Then after you watch the simulation take notes on the vocabulary and draw pictures of each stage.
-Simrin Kullar #4

Tuesday, March 8, 2011


Today we split up into to groups. There was one group that completed page 97 in the textbook. Here are the questions.

1. How long does growth phase of the cell cycle take? A. 1 hour B. 3 hours C. 8 hours D. 10 hours.

2. How much time does the cell cycle spend in interphase? A. 1 hour B. 10 hours C. 21 hours D. 22 hours

3. What is the total length of time it takes for the skin cell to complete one full cell cycle? A.10 hours B. 18 hours C.21 hours D. 22 hours

4. What phase of the cell cycle takes about 8 hours? A. DNA replication B. Mitosis C. Growth D. Preparation for cell division

5. Suppose another type of skin cell takes 44 hours to complete one cell cycle. If all of the phases are proportional to the length of time shown in the diagram, how long will the preparation for cell division phase last? A. 3 hours B. 6 hours C. 10 hours D. 20 hours

6. According to this diagram, what is the second stage in mitosis? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Telophase D. Cytokinesis

Then we moved to the next station and went over the worksheet labeled Examining Cell Division. Here are the answers

1. It needs to grow to get more water.


3. You can see some cells about to split and some cells have two nuclei. Also the chromosomes are in weird shapes.

4. Results may vary.

Then we looked at different cells in an onion root slice. There were cells in it that were in each step of mitosis. Anaphase was demonstrated by Mr Finley and another student were together like best friends and then two other people pulled them apart. They had there arms out to each other saying "Besty":(. Mr Finley then called Anaphase the "Besties Stage" to help people remember. He also demonstrated Prophase by crowding a student. The student was supposed to be DNA. During Prophase, he uncrowded the student and they had room to move around.

-Noah Kudman #4

Monday, March 7, 2011

3/7/11 Blog

Today in class we were working on the worksheet we got last Friday. We used microscopes to look for cells in the process of mitosis. Some reminders with the microscopes are that when you are using low power, remember you are looking at a lot of cells instead of only one cell. The worksheet answers are:

1) You are looking at cross-sectional slices of the the tip of an onion root. Why might you expect an onion root tip to have cells that are dividing?

A: Since it's the root of an onion, it needs to expand to get water that's why the root needs to expand.

2) Find and look at all three of the slices briefly. What are the dyed objects inside of the cell?

A: For our group the dyed objects are nuclei.

3) Is there evidence of cellular division? Explain.

A For our group we said that yes because there were two nuclei.

For #4 you had to draw pictures of the cells and for #5 you had to use the pictures!!!

- Maria Cordero #4

Friday, March 4, 2011

3/4/11 Blog

If you can't read the picture go to google images and type in "a cell going through mitosis."
He started to talk about when he went around yesterday telling us about the leader. What does it mean to be a team leader: to include everyone,making sure everyone stays on track, and also getting activities done in a certain amount of time. If you don't understand something about this ask Mr. Finley or leave a comment and hopefully I'll be able to answer it!!!!! Then, we took out our answers to the questions from the book. Answers below!!!!!

Section 3.1

1) Cell division is important because it makes more cells for you when you get grow, develop, and repair for multicellular organisms. Cell division is important because it creates a new organism.

2) Genetic material is organized in a eukaryotic cell is packaged in the form of a chromosome.

3) Repair: The cells grow in size but when they divide the two cells are identical, so if you slice your knee, they both fill in the whole. Growth: When you get taller or bigger, you will need more cells. Development: They help you grow and when they split they grow or else they would get smaller and smaller everytime they split.

4) DNA compacts before a eukaryotic cell divides because DNA is wrapped around proteins like a thread around a spool and compacted into structures called chromosomes, it shows up better under a microscope.

5) I think that injuries to the skin generally heal faster than injuries to the brain because your skin cells divide faster than the brain because the cell cycle is shorter.

Section 3.2

1) The two main parts of the cell cycle are Interphase first then mitosis second.

2) There are more organelles, more DNA, and when they split they grow x2.

3) The genetic material in two daughter cells are similar to the genetic material in the parent cell because they are genetically similar.

4) 1. Prophase-The nucleus membrane disappears.

2. Metaphase-lines up the chromosomes in the middle of the nucleus.

3. Anaphase-chromosomes seperate.

4. Telephase-new membranes form and split.

5) There is a cell membrane in the animal cell, a cell wall forms between them in a plant cell.

#6 we didn't go over

  • Then we took a look at cells going through mitosis.

  • When we use microscopes, we use them as a group, 2 microscopes per table.

  • The ones with pink labels don't work.

  • Then we filled out a worksheet, we're going to finish it tomorrow in class

If you people have any questions ask Mr. Finley or leave a comment and hopefully I'll be able to answer.


Thursday, March 3, 2011


Questions from class:

What is an example of a one celled eukaryotic organism?

Paramecium and Euglena. (above in photo).

What is an example of a multicellular organism?

Human, fox, hippo, dog, cat, sunflower, tulip, etc.

Which of the examples above would use mitosis to grow, develop, and repair cells? Why?
Multicellular organisms. This is because if you do something to injure a single-celled organsim, it wouldn't be able to repair itself because all of the organelles and cytoplasm would spill out, WHEREAS, humans would just reproduce cells until the area is healed. Also, if single celled organisms went through mitosis it would turn into TWO organisms instead of just a new cell that isn't organism.

How would the other use mitosis?

They would use mitosis to reproduce and make a new organsim.

What would be true about the two resulting cells?

They would be exact genetic copies of the parent cell. This is because the DNA is exactly copied so they are exactly the same, so all parameciums look exactly the same.
In comparison: When humans reproduce, the children will look kind of the same as the parents but not exactly, because of two pairs of genes not one.

Is this true about any two cells we compare in a multicellular organism?

No. This is because they have different functions (liver cell vs. brain cells) so there are different amounts of organelles that are used for different things (ex. leaf cells need more chloroplasts to photosynthesize.)

In comparison: If I take 2 cheek cells they will look exactly the same

Other notes:

MITOSIS is reproduction for single celled organisms.

Mitosis is cellular REPRODUCTION for single celled organisms whereas, mitosis is cellular DEVISION for multi-celled organisms. This is because reproduction is the creation of a new organism.

The 4 parts of mitosis are: (not in this order)





Parts of cell cycle (not necassarilly in this order)




Chromatid: One side of a chromosome, that connected at the centromere.
Kevin D. (4th)

Wednesday, March 2, 2011


The first thing we did was go over our homework, also Mr. Finley told us that on our blogs to out a number of how many that you have done.


chromatid-each of a pair of identical DNA molecules after DNA replication, joined at the centromere

chromatin-protein DNA complex making the chromosome

chromosomes-molecules or DNA complexed with specfic proteins responsible in

eukaryotes for storage and transmission of genetic information.

histones-5 kinds of proteins forming complexes with eukaryotic DNA

kinectochore-structure at centromere during Mitosis binding microtubules

nucleosomes-basic structural unit of eukaryotic chromosome forming"beads on a string"


What is Mitosis?

Steps taken to make a new cell.

Why do some cells reproduce faster than others?

You are more likely damage your skin because you get cuts and sunburns all the time. Some cells evolve so that they reproduce faster than others too.

Is the cell reproducing all the time?

No, it only reproduces only to repair and for growth, also devolpement.

Why would you spilt in half into to smaller things?

Well, the cells grow so during interphase, we can conclude that the cells grow!

What happens in teleophase?

Teleophase is when everything starts to reform and rebuild. Eventually getting back to normal.

What is the purpose of Cellular Reproduction?

It is that we are trying to split the DNA equally.

~Eica Wirth~

Happy Birthday Justin Bieber!!!!(one day late)
This is my 4th time blogging

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

The test has been moved:
You can take it on Thursday during Homeroom and studyhall if you want, or on Friday during class.
NOTES:(order of what happens in cell)
(Part 1 transcription)
1. DNA unzips.
2. Nucleotides (floating around) connect to one side of the unzipped DNA.
3. mRNA is made(copy of gene)
4. mRNA leaves and DNA re-zips
5. The mRNA leaves the nucleus (through pores)
(Part 2 translation and protein synthesis)
1. mRNA heads to ribosome
2. mRNA joins with ribosome
3. Ribosome reads message 1 codon at a time(3 nucleotides)
4. tRNA (that match the codon from mRNA) brings the amino acid to ribosome.
5. Ribosome takes the amino acids
6. This process is repeated many times.
Differences between transcription and translation.
Result: Transcription you get mRNA and replication you get DNA
Copies: One part of DNA (gene) is copied in transcription. In replication all of the DNA is copied.
*Translation= Protein synthesis (making protein). *Transcription= Making mRNA *Replication= making new DNA.

This can get very confusing at some points. It can be confusing because you forget or confuse transcription and translation or think protein synthesis is a totally different when in reality it is the same thing as translation!!!
KD (3rd)

Tuesday, February 15, 2011


To start off class we shared our summaries about our homework last night. We talked about how replication and transcription are similar. In order for it to replicate it needs to "unzip" and in order to transcript it has to "unzip". Another way the two processes are similar are that they make copies. The difference in the copies is that in transcription it's copying a gene and in replication it makes new DNA. If skin falls off you need to make more skin cells that have nuclei so you need to make DNA. During transcription it copies one gene of DNA. When a strand of DNA splits in half it's part of replication. We learned that Uracil goes with Adenine. That proteins are made out of amino acids. Molecules make up amino acids. Atoms make up molecules. Mr. Finley wrote "Black Block" on the board and then picked up a black block. Are they the same? Why or why not? I said no because on the board it's just words but the black block is a black block, the words describe it. 3 nucleotides are called codons.


Monday, February 14, 2011


Today in class we went over the homework. The test is on Thursday!

DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid.

DNA replication is when cells reproduce.

DNA Molecule is made up of nucleic acid(nitrogen bases).

50% of DNA is new. 50% of it is old. This is called Semi-Conservation.

Semi means half and conservation means to save. Semi-Conservations means to save half of the old DNA.

DNA has two strands of sugar, RNA has one strand.

RNA uses Uracil. DNA uses Thymine.

EXAMPLE: The zipper of a jacket, the "teeth" of the zipper are either cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil, or thymine.
If you are still a little confused this website may help


Thursday, February 10, 2011

First we came into class and went over the rules for the activity. The rules are, table A can not talk, table B can not try to decoded and table C can not allow the answers to leave the table. We did this experiment to transfer and decode a message from one group through one to a third group. The group that began with the message could not move or talk. They then gave the message to the travelers that brought that to the group with the decode paper then the decoded message through to the second group that could talk who then read the message. This is similar to how the parts of a cell work together. We then discussed how table A was like a nucleus because they had the message. The message represented DNA because it comes from the nucleus. The purpose of the rules are to show how things can pass through the nuclear membrane but only as certain forms. After these questions we began to take notes but will continue tomorrow.

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

Science Class 2-9-11

Today in class, we talked about how if there's a sub, we shouldn't listen to them, we should listen to what's on Mr.Finley's plans. After that, we went over the homework.

1. Which form of energy is especially important for living things? Why?
Chemical engery because the ATP gives the energy to your cells so you can do activities.

2. How is photosynthesis important to life on Earth?
Photosynthesis is important because it provides food for us.

3.What starting materials do cells need for cellular respiration?
Cells need glucose and oxygen for cellular respiration.

4. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar? How are they different?
They are similar because they both help plants and other living things live. They are different because photosynthesis makes the glucose and cellular respiration breaks the glucose. Also, cellular respiration happens in the mitochondria and photosynthesis happens in the chloroplasts. And all living things respirate but only plants photosynthesize.

5. Suppose that in a lab you could remove all the oxygen from a terrarium. What would happen to the plants.
If we removed all the oxygen from a terrarium, the plants would die because as it grows, it needs more oxygen and we don't have that much.

6. In everyday language, the word respiration refers to breathing. How is breathing related to cellular respiration?
Breathing is related to cellular respiration because the carbon dioxide we breath out comes from cellular respiration.

After that, we talked about how the result of anaerobic respiration is lactic acid. If the anaerobic respiration keeps up, so would the lactic acid, and as a result you would get muscle cramps. The glucose from cellular respiration is used for energy, storing for later, and it could be used for the plant's structure.


Monday, February 7, 2011


In the beginning of class, Mr. Finley had us show him our lab report and homework. Then, we started discussing the homework.

1.What happened?
Yellow balloon had the largest amount of gas. Green balloon had the second most amount of gas. Then, nothing seems to have happened to the red and blue ones.
2.Which graph does this data support?

The data represented graph C. The class agreed on this:). It shows how the balloon got bigger as the temperature got warmer but then, when it got to the "extremes", the balloon didn't fill up.

3.Why does this make sense to you?

This makes sense because the yeast will die in the super hot water, so they can not respirate. But, the super cold water test tube actually has some gas in the balloon. So, the yeast is respirating, so therefore they aren't dead. We can concur that when our bodies are in cold weather, they won't breathe as fast. For example...In the summer, when dogs pant to take in oxygen, to break down glucose, the rate of their metabolisms are higher. The warmer balloon had the most gas in the balloon. So, the dog in summer has a higher rate then the dog in spring. like the test tubes.

All reactions: The higher the temperature, the quicker the reaction rate.

The yellow balloon is like a cell membrane. Mr. Finley told us that the yellow balloon had to be permeable. Because, when you blow up a balloon manually, the CO2 wants to make the concentration between the air and the balloon

Anaerobic Respiration<--click on me for more info!

The difference: Aerobic Respiration uses oxygen, Anaerobic Respiration doesn't use oxygen.

Side Effect: Muscle cramps produced by lactic acid.

Fermentation is to break down one thing to another thing.

Fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration. But, you don't produce lactic acid...you produce alcohol.
~Erica Wirth~

Friday, February 4, 2011

February 4 Period 8

Today we started by taking qualitative notes on our experiment. Our contolled variable was type of water (Distilled & Bottled Water). Today was Day 4. Our data was:
  • Cap pushed up on bottled water tube
  • Cap stayed same for distlled water tube
  • Big clump of yeast on top of water in distilled tube
  • Almost no yeast on the sides of both tubes
  • Even less water in distilled tube
  • More yeast on bottom of distilled than bottled
  • Not much yeast on top of either tube
  • Bottled water tube got more murky

Next we looked at 4 line graphs in which the x-axis was temperature, and the y-axis was the rate of metabolism. One was a "U" shape, one was straight, one going from bottom to top then plummeting, and one from top to bottom. The 1st question he asked us was which showed change. All but the straight one showed change because both varibles must be adjusted in order for it to be "changed". The 2nd question was which one showed the path for cellular respiration. This was the one that went from the bottom to the top because it shows the correct path for cellular respiration. Next Finley filled up ballons with different temperature CO2 ballons.

Red- Super hot

Yellow- Medium temp/warm

Green- Mix of yellow & blue

Blue- Super cold

After this he apologized for cutting our quiz time short and everybody got them back, unmarked. We had the remainder of the class to finish our report. Finally, the class was over. Do your lab report!!!

Brendan Turner
Finley rox!

Thursday, February 3, 2011

Maddie Bedder blog#4 Period 8 2/3/11

Today we observed our test tubes and took notes preparing for the upcoming lab report. Mr.Finley wants us to be exact and just flat out tell what will happen with your results.

What you will expect when your are writing your prediction? You should base it off of your hypothesis. You can use these things for evidence of CO2 production would be the cork shooting out. You also have to have pressure for that evidence. Some more evidence of CO2 production would be yeast and water outside of the test tube. Having it push stuff to have it come out of the sides. It could also just rise a little bit, not having to pop off. If the seal was very good it could be that less CO2 was produced, but the rate could also be very slow, so it wouldn't shoot off immediatley. You also need to have tables for your qualitative data. You could also have two tables if you would like. Because of the snowday, this lab report is going to be due Monday. Try to get little bits of typing done each day. For the conclusion, you could say what you tried if you didn't get it right away like some of the other groups. You should say what you assumed about you experiment, or you could also say what you knew. you could also say what you would want to do next. The conclusion should sum up your whole lab report. Try to say EXACTLY what you did, saw, and said. You should put the independent and dependent varibles should be mentioned in the prediction. The dependent varible was CO2 production. The yeast rises because the CO2 cant get out.

Maddie Bedder blog#4

Monday, January 31, 2011

1/31/11 period 8

The first thing we did today was go over the homework:

1 a. In photosynthesis, what substances come in from the outside?

Light energy, water, and carbon dioxide.

b. What substances are produced?

glucose and oxygen

2. Write the overall equation for photosynthesis.

light energy+6CO2+6H2O-->C6H12O6+6O2

3. The purpose of cellular respiration is to release the energy from the carbohydrates and other organic molecules stored during photosynthesis.

4. Write the formula that shows the release of energy by a molecule of ATP.


The first paragraph is:

All living organisms respire in order to release energy from glucose. The energy released is stored as chemical energy in the form of a molecule called ATP. This molecule contains high energy bonds which, when broken down, release energy that is available for metabolic reactions within the cell. The waste products of respiration are carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide is released to the air.

The second paragraph is:

Plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria produce their own food by photosynthesis. They take in carbon dioxide from the air or surrounding water and combine it with water through a complex series of reactions to form glucose. Solar energy is required to drive some of these reactions. The glucose produced may be used in respiration to provide energy, or may be converted to a storage form such as cellulose in plants.

After we set up our lab. You had to have three different experiments, changing one variable each time. Every group had a different experiment because you got to choose your variable.

This experiment was confusing for some people because they didn't know how much yeast to put in or how much liquid to use.
This is a picture of what our test tubes kind of looked like. We didn't have a medicine dropper but everything else was the same.
JR Period 8

Friday, January 28, 2011

Science Class 1-28-11

Today, we looked over the homework and talked about how the reactants of photosynthesis are products of respiration. (C6H12O6 + 602 --->)
(6CO2 + 6H20)

It made sense the formula was opposite because they do opposite things.

We reviewed that photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts and the cellular respirtaion takes place in the mitochondian. Plants need oxygen for cellular respiration or energy. We also talked about how we need light to live because without light, plants wouldn't be alive, which is bad since some of our food comes from plants. We discussed we needed energy to exercise and also take in CO2 and glucose. We exhale more CO2 after we exercise because we're doing cellular respiration, which takes up more energy.


Tuesday, January 25, 2011

January 25th

After he checked the HW, we started today we started with answering some questions on the SmartBoard:

Scientists suggest planting some plants as soon as possible on a new planet that we discovered.

1. Why would they suggest this?

They would suggest this because they want to see if the plants can survive under the atmospheric conditions.

2. What would we need to know about the planet before we start our plan?

We would need to know what the atmosphere is like so we know how much gravity and oxygen is on the planet.

3. Could the plants survive if the planet had no oxygen?

No. Since oxygen is needed for cellular respiration, life would be impossible. Oxygen is a necessity for photosyntheisis, so the planet would become devoid of life very quickly.

Then, we went over our answers. We voted on #3 and concluded that plants need oxygen. We also concluded that plants need this to provide energy to the plant. The BrainPop vidoes from last night helped us answer these questions. We related cellular respiration to digestion. We need a mouth, stomach, and an esophogus. ATP stands for adenosime trisophade. Cellular respiration is used for energy, which is also ATP. We need glucose because it provides energy as well, but eating green fruits and vegetables does the same thing. If anything ends in -ose, it is sugar. Breads and pastas are good examples of glucose because they are made of wheat, which is a plant, so it photosynthesises, which gives you glucose, which gives you energy! Remember to do your HW!

Brendan Turner

Go Packers! :-)

Monday, January 24, 2011

Blog Period 8 1/24/11

We are still on photosynthesis- we learned that you need food and water to grow and have energy, just like plants do. The chlorophyll provide the plants color- green, which is dark, and since dark colors atract sun, that is what plants need for photosynthesis. Plants need sunlight, water, and carbon dixoide. The formula for photosynthesis is, 6CO2+ 6H2O --> C6H2O+ 6O2.
Whatever we start with we have to end with which is conservation of mass. The mass of the plant is made of carbon dixiode and water. Soil is just like vitamins. The plants can live without it and so can we. You just won't be as healthy.

We moved on to an experiment next. Mr.Finley gave us a military drill to do to test the amounts of carbon dixiode before and after. There were two experimentors and the rest of the people in the group were the participants. The two people running the experiment had to call out either foward- which were push-ups, and then when if they said back, you had to do st-ups or curl-ups, when they told you to go, you had to run in place as fast as possible. We tested the amount of carbon dixide before, which was low, and after, which was a higher count. We came to a conclusion that as a result of physical exertion, the induvidual's carbon dixiode level increased. We have to finish answering the queations and watch the video to help you go back to them for homework.


Friday, January 21, 2011

January 21st,2011 Carter Stumpf

To start off the day, Mr.Finley went around and checked the homework from last night. Which was to make a graph and complete the questions for the elodea and photosynthesis lab packet. This was the last assignment we had for the photosynthesis part of the unit. Next, we went over all the questions from the packet asking what went wrong with the experiment and what we learned from it and also what were the good things that happened in the experiment. We also discussed what new things and questions arose from the experiment as we did such as Noah's idea which was to see if photosynthesis would happen quicker if we put the test tube as close to the light as possible. since it was a half day today, Mr. Finely deicided to give us a lab to do to take a closer look at cells and organisms. The goal of the lab is to try and see some living organisms using a microscope. We have the option to look at the elodea under the microscope as well. We have to draw a picture of what we see and write a description about it to see that we understand adpatations and other things. Will and I put mixed protozoa on the slide and we will make observations about what we see. We saw live protozoa looking through the microscope which i thought was pretty cool. And for the last part of the day we drew what we saw in our notebooks and anwsered questions about the protozoa lab. Carter Stumpf

Thursday, January 20, 2011

Elodea experiment

Today is our second day of experimenting with Elodea. We are also using a light source. We are testing how light affects photosynthesis. Instead of using a Co2 tablet, we are using baking soda for CO2. There is tape on the table, and we put the light source at the end of the tape. The tape is already measured.Then you put the elodea that is in the test tube, on 10 cm for 4 minutes. After 4 minutes my table's Elodea had no bubbles coming up from the cut part of the Elodea. Our problem was that that the baking soda did not dissolved yet. It was it still at the bottom of the test tube. After the second time we tried the experiment on 10cm we got 3 bublbles. Then we started on 20 cm and we got 2 bubbles.

R.R Period 8

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

1/19/11 Juliana Ruta Period 8 blog number 4

Today in class we started our photosynthesis experiment.

To set up the experiment one person had to measure the mass of the carbon dioxide tablet. If you were in the high amount group you had to get a piece weighing from 1-1.5. If you were in the medium amount group you needed a piece that weighed 0.5-1. If you were in the low amount group you needed a piece that weighed from 0-0.5. After you got the right amount you had to crush up the tablet. While someone was doing that, someone else was getting the elodea plant and getting rid of the leaves near the stem and crushing it at the bottom. A third person was getting the water. We used 20 ml of water which we measured with a graduated cylinder. Then we poured the water into a test tube.
For the experiment, the first thing to put into the test tube was the water. Next we put in the CO2. Before you add the elodea, you have to wait for the bubbling to settle down. Once it does you can put in the elodea and start your timer. Start counting the bubbles you see come off the plant. After a minute, record your results. Keep doing this after each minute until 5 minutes has passed.

Not a lot of people were able to complete the experiment. Some of the parts that confused people were for the high carbonated water was the plant kept floating up to the top so they should use 1.1 instead of 1.4 or 1.5. Another problem was people counted the wrong bubbles so they got the wrong numbers. We will do the experiment again tomorrow.

Here is a link to a video of an elodea plant during photosynthesis-


JR Period8

Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Rohan Mallya P8 1/18/11

Today was a half-day, so we couldn't do as much as we should have, for we had a 26 min. period. We went over the homework and an experiment for tomorrow. Here are the answers to the homework:

1. According to your notes, what is the equation for photosynthesis?

6CO2 + 6H2O yields C6H12O6 + 6O2

2. Where do plants get the CO2 for this process (what organisms release this gas) ?

They get carbon dioxide from all living things (Pants also breath oxygen and release carbon dioxide. They only need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, but they still need to breath.)

3. What organelle in plants is responsible for photosynthesis (producing food) ?

The chloroplasts are responsible for photosynthesis in cells.

4. What is the pigment found in this organelle that absorbs light to power photosynthesis?

It's the chlorophyll.

5. If a plant were under water and was photosynthesizing, what gas would be visibly bubbling from the plant?

Oxygen would.

6. The 2 experiments can vary as long as it tests the two things efficiently. Look online to see what you have to test.

We also went over the experiment. It is in the packet that contains all the questions that were just answered in this blog. We just revised it a little. First off, we have to find the mass of the sodium bicarbonate. Also, we have to add 20 ml. of water to keep the experiment controlled. For today's homework, you have to read the experiment until you can do it without looking at the sheet. You also have to write a prediction on it (Remember: A prediction is not a hypothesis! Look at the syllabus for help.)

Here is a video for photosynthesis (has some things that are hard to understand, but won't disrupt main point of video and won't have to be learned for class): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYbMPwmwx88