Wednesday, March 30, 2011
Tuesday, March 29, 2011
- Two parents
- Four children
- Both parents are brown
- Three children are brown
- One child is green
- Smooth and wrinkly textures
- Some parents and children are similar or identical
- They all have a combination of Y, y, R, and r chromosomes
This is what I noticed about the simulation:
- Use the radio buttons to mate two pea plants
- You can mate a plant with itself
Then we had to try and make a hypothesis that would allow us to correctly predict the kinds of peas that would be born when we breeded certain peas. My first hypothesis is that if you breed two plants with the same texture or color together, all the children will be the same texture and color. These were the results:
Parents: yellow smooth, yellow smooth
Children: Green smooth, yellow smooth, yellow smooth, yellow wrinkled
My next hypothesis was if there is at least one Y, it will be yellow. If there is at least one R, it will be smooth. If it's yy it is green, and if it's rr it will be wrinkled. Another hypothesis I had was that there will always be at least one exact copy of one of the parents among the children. These were both proven.
Parents: yy RR, yY Rr
Children: yy RR, yY Rr, yy RR, yY RR
We know now that all children will be made up of some combination of their parents' DNA. At the end of the period we figured out the hypothesis. Finley said we would talk about it the next day.
-LG Blog 4
Monday, March 28, 2011
Thursday, March 24, 2011
Wednesday, March 23, 2011
2)Why are your siblings different from you?
You have different chromosomes because of crossing and everyone else because now we have different positives and negatives, so if everyone was exactly the same, only the same thing would be able to be contributed. This is called diversity.
Phases of Meiosis
1) Metaphase-Homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrad
2) Anaphase I- Spindles Fibers move homologous chromosomes to oppisite sides
3)Cytokinsis II- Nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter cells formed
4) Metaphase II- Chromosomes line up alomg equator, not in homologous pairs
5)Prophase I- Crossing over occurs
7)Anaphase II-Chromotids seperate
8) Metaphase I- Homologs line up alone equator.
9) Cytokinesis I- Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed.
Tuesday, March 22, 2011
metaphase 1 the actual chromosomes are lined up
100% of DNA at the end
2 cells are created
more steps homologous pairs
homologous pairs are lined up
50% of DNA at the end
4 haploid cells created
DNA chromosomes similar stages
meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis
both deal with chromosomes not pairs
Then, we did a class demonstration, the homologous pairs line up, then trade DNA with eachother. They split into four different cells. One cell has all Will, another one has all Carter, another one has half Carter half Will, and another with half Will half Carter.
This is my 4th time blogging
Friday, March 18, 2011
Thursday, March 17, 2011
1. First, the male and female must go through intercourse (sex). Remember: sex is not reproduction! It is merely a delivery meathod so that the sperm and egg cells are at same place at the same time!
2. Next, the sperm cell has to fertilize egg cell in the womb. During fertilization, the two cell literally merge together. The egg is always an "x" chromosome and the sperm is either an "x" or a "y" chromosome. Each cell has half of the 46 chromosomes (23 homologous pairs). But, we learned that when you go through sex, the woman does not always end up pregnant. This is could be because the woman used birth controls, which keep the the sperm and egg cells from being in the same place at the same time. Or, this could be because the spaerm and the egg are never end up being in the same place at the same time.
3. The first cell of the new organism is formed.
Finley told us that for plants, the sex cells are the egg and the pollen. The pollen is kind of like the sperm cell, but for plants.
Here's a video to clear this all up:
There might be some vocabulary you might not know.
Wednesday, March 16, 2011
1) How does binary fission relate to cell division?
Binary fission and mitosis are both about the division of the cell, but binary fission seperates bacteria in prokaryotic cells. Cell division seperates eukaryotic cells.
2) What is a bud, and where does it form on an organism that reproduces asexually?
Budding is where a new cell starts to form on the side of a membrane of another cell, then it grows out the side, then after it is very large, it just seperates.
3) Compare sexual and asexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because in sexual reproduction, you need two cells, but in asexual reproduction, it reproduces faster, and it is only one cell. in sexual reproduction, the offspring looks similar to their parents. You would look identical in asexual reproduction since it's only one cell.
After we went over the questions we took notes on chromosomes in karyotypes. Which is a picture of your chromosones, and they are all single strands. They all have two strands. There are 46 all in total in the human body. There are 23 pairs of chromosones, the pairs are homologous, which means the same, they represent the same pair. Down syndrome is when we are missing one of the pair of chromosomes from the 21st pair. The pairs 1 through 22 we call autosomes. Sex chromosomes are either xx or xy. Xx is a girl, and xy is a boy.
Monday, March 14, 2011
Thursday, March 10, 2011
Wednesday, March 9, 2011
After that we went to the group and went over the stages, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. We had a picture on the smart board and each cell was a different stage. Anaphase was when two cells are attached and are then pulled away from each other. An example to remember this is calling it the best friend stage. The best friends are being pulled away from each other. Another stage is prophase which is when a cell is crowded by a bunch of other cells. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up. Telophase is when the nucleus is formed. Cytokinesis is seperation of the cell membrane. After that we watched the simulation, took notes, and drew pictures of each stage. To watch the simulation go to the following link:http://cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm Then after you watch the simulation take notes on the vocabulary and draw pictures of each stage.
-Simrin Kullar #4
Tuesday, March 8, 2011
Today we split up into to groups. There was one group that completed page 97 in the textbook. Here are the questions.
1. How long does growth phase of the cell cycle take? A. 1 hour B. 3 hours C. 8 hours D. 10 hours.
2. How much time does the cell cycle spend in interphase? A. 1 hour B. 10 hours C. 21 hours D. 22 hours
3. What is the total length of time it takes for the skin cell to complete one full cell cycle? A.10 hours B. 18 hours C.21 hours D. 22 hours
4. What phase of the cell cycle takes about 8 hours? A. DNA replication B. Mitosis C. Growth D. Preparation for cell division
5. Suppose another type of skin cell takes 44 hours to complete one cell cycle. If all of the phases are proportional to the length of time shown in the diagram, how long will the preparation for cell division phase last? A. 3 hours B. 6 hours C. 10 hours D. 20 hours
6. According to this diagram, what is the second stage in mitosis? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Telophase D. Cytokinesis
Then we moved to the next station and went over the worksheet labeled Examining Cell Division. Here are the answers
1. It needs to grow to get more water.
3. You can see some cells about to split and some cells have two nuclei. Also the chromosomes are in weird shapes.
4. Results may vary.
Then we looked at different cells in an onion root slice. There were cells in it that were in each step of mitosis. Anaphase was demonstrated by Mr Finley and another student were together like best friends and then two other people pulled them apart. They had there arms out to each other saying "Besty":(. Mr Finley then called Anaphase the "Besties Stage" to help people remember. He also demonstrated Prophase by crowding a student. The student was supposed to be DNA. During Prophase, he uncrowded the student and they had room to move around.
Monday, March 7, 2011
Friday, March 4, 2011
1) Cell division is important because it makes more cells for you when you get grow, develop, and repair for multicellular organisms. Cell division is important because it creates a new organism.
2) Genetic material is organized in a eukaryotic cell is packaged in the form of a chromosome.
3) Repair: The cells grow in size but when they divide the two cells are identical, so if you slice your knee, they both fill in the whole. Growth: When you get taller or bigger, you will need more cells. Development: They help you grow and when they split they grow or else they would get smaller and smaller everytime they split.
4) DNA compacts before a eukaryotic cell divides because DNA is wrapped around proteins like a thread around a spool and compacted into structures called chromosomes, it shows up better under a microscope.
5) I think that injuries to the skin generally heal faster than injuries to the brain because your skin cells divide faster than the brain because the cell cycle is shorter.
1) The two main parts of the cell cycle are Interphase first then mitosis second.
2) There are more organelles, more DNA, and when they split they grow x2.
3) The genetic material in two daughter cells are similar to the genetic material in the parent cell because they are genetically similar.
4) 1. Prophase-The nucleus membrane disappears.
2. Metaphase-lines up the chromosomes in the middle of the nucleus.
3. Anaphase-chromosomes seperate.
4. Telephase-new membranes form and split.
5) There is a cell membrane in the animal cell, a cell wall forms between them in a plant cell.
#6 we didn't go over
- Then we took a look at cells going through mitosis.
- When we use microscopes, we use them as a group, 2 microscopes per table.
- The ones with pink labels don't work.
- Then we filled out a worksheet, we're going to finish it tomorrow in class
If you people have any questions ask Mr. Finley or leave a comment and hopefully I'll be able to answer.
Thursday, March 3, 2011
Multicellular organisms. This is because if you do something to injure a single-celled organsim, it wouldn't be able to repair itself because all of the organelles and cytoplasm would spill out, WHEREAS, humans would just reproduce cells until the area is healed. Also, if single celled organisms went through mitosis it would turn into TWO organisms instead of just a new cell that isn't organism.
In comparison: When humans reproduce, the children will look kind of the same as the parents but not exactly, because of two pairs of genes not one.
Kevin D. (4th)
Wednesday, March 2, 2011
The first thing we did was go over our homework, also Mr. Finley told us that on our blogs to out a number of how many that you have done.
chromatid-each of a pair of identical DNA molecules after DNA replication, joined at the centromere
chromatin-protein DNA complex making the chromosome
chromosomes-molecules or DNA complexed with specfic proteins responsible in
eukaryotes for storage and transmission of genetic information.
histones-5 kinds of proteins forming complexes with eukaryotic DNA
kinectochore-structure at centromere during Mitosis binding microtubules
nucleosomes-basic structural unit of eukaryotic chromosome forming"beads on a string"
What is Mitosis?
Steps taken to make a new cell.
Why do some cells reproduce faster than others?
You are more likely damage your skin because you get cuts and sunburns all the time. Some cells evolve so that they reproduce faster than others too.
Is the cell reproducing all the time?
No, it only reproduces only to repair and for growth, also devolpement.
Why would you spilt in half into to smaller things?
Well, the cells grow so during interphase, we can conclude that the cells grow!
What happens in teleophase?
Teleophase is when everything starts to reform and rebuild. Eventually getting back to normal.
What is the purpose of Cellular Reproduction?
It is that we are trying to split the DNA equally.
Happy Birthday Justin Bieber!!!!(one day late)
This is my 4th time blogging