Wednesday, March 30, 2011

March 30

Today, Mr. Finley had us try to figure out what he wanted us to figure out why he asked us the homework questions after we went over it. We thought it was because some genes were recessive, as in they were in our parents but maybe didn't show up in them. Then they got passed down to us and we showed them. Mr. Finley asked the class who could make their tongue into a U, and almost everybody could. Then Mr. Finley said that we weren't exactly understanding the ideas of dominant and recessive genes, and he told us we would look at the pes again. We had to try to figure out the hypothesis that would allow us to predict the genetic combinations the children would have. Our hypothesis was that: To find the combinations of genes in the children, you need to combine the first gene with both genes in the second pea's genes.

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

March 29

Today, Mr. Finley announced we would get our tests back soon. The last person just took it. Then we started talking about growth. Mr. Finley had Rachel come up and compared them. Although they went through mostly the same processees, they were very different because they had different chromosomes. Then Mr. Finley made us do an activity on his website. We did the pea soup experiment. We had several pea plants with different combinations of chromosomes. We had to write down what we noticed about the peas and the simulation. Here's what I thought about the peas:

  • Two parents

  • Four children

  • Both parents are brown

  • Three children are brown

  • One child is green

  • Smooth and wrinkly textures

  • Some parents and children are similar or identical

  • They all have a combination of Y, y, R, and r chromosomes

This is what I noticed about the simulation:

  • Use the radio buttons to mate two pea plants

  • You can mate a plant with itself

Then we had to try and make a hypothesis that would allow us to correctly predict the kinds of peas that would be born when we breeded certain peas. My first hypothesis is that if you breed two plants with the same texture or color together, all the children will be the same texture and color. These were the results:

Parents: yellow smooth, yellow smooth

Children: Green smooth, yellow smooth, yellow smooth, yellow wrinkled

My next hypothesis was if there is at least one Y, it will be yellow. If there is at least one R, it will be smooth. If it's yy it is green, and if it's rr it will be wrinkled. Another hypothesis I had was that there will always be at least one exact copy of one of the parents among the children. These were both proven.

Parents: yy RR, yY Rr

Children: yy RR, yY Rr, yy RR, yY RR

We know now that all children will be made up of some combination of their parents' DNA. At the end of the period we figured out the hypothesis. Finley said we would talk about it the next day.

-LG Blog 4

Monday, March 28, 2011

3/28/11 Discussion on Meiosis

Today in class, Mr. Finley told us we were going to get our most previous test back as soon as the last person took their test. Talking about tests, we will have one, a week from tesday. Hopefully, before the end of the marking period(April 20) we will get back our lab reports.

Then, we continued off with our human example/simulation of meiosis which we left off on thursday(check thursday's blog if you are confused). We continued with prophaseII, in which the nucleur membrane disappears, chromosomes condense, and the two centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell. After that, we decided to only focas on one cell because there were too many people. Then in metaphaseII the humans lined up on either side of the plate and the spindle fibers were attached to them. During anaphaseII, the people in the middle of the room (chromosomes) seperate (besty stage). Lastly, during telophaseII, the nucleur membranes reapear, forming four cells. We did not go over cytokinesesII because it was not neccasry, since everyone understood that the nucleaur membranes split...etc.

The more important discussion was when we started to take notes on reproduction! YAY! At first we talked about a single celled organism such as a peremecium cell and how it goes through mitosis to reproduce. We compared single cell reproduction to mutlicell reporduction, such as us humans. We said that the process of reproduction/meiosis starts off when two haploid cells( containing 50% DNA) such as an egg and a sperm cell, meet up in the same place at the same time. When the two cells join together, they form a zygote. After that, the zygote goes through mitosis to create more cells and to get bigger. The zygote starts to become into an infant. To add on, the infant goes through even more mitosis to become an adolescent. Especially during this time of a males life, around 12-17 years old, meiosis starts occuring in his testes. Keep in mind that mitosis is still hapening everywhere else in the body to repair and create more cells. Some key terms that you should know are that there are three different gametes(sex cells); eggs, sperm, and pollin. Continuing with the process of meiosis, when a adolecsent grows and becomes a man, he marries a woman and happily engages sexual intercourse. The purpose is to basically get the two halpoid cells in the same place at the same time. Once they meet and join they create a process called fertilization. Then the whole process of meiosis repeats. However, the main difference between a female going through meiosis than a male, is that she does it when she is in her stage of a zygote and an infant. Therefore, by now she would already be done with it.

I hope I have made you more clear on this topic that we learned today. If you have any questions, leave a comment and I will try my best to reply.


#4 blog

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Today we did an experiment directing and acting out meiosis. We have some people on tables acting as a cell membrane around the people who are inside acting as changing chromosomes. We are using string to symbolize spindle fibers. the string is attached to the chromosomes, that will pull apart the chromosomes. we used the people on the inside to made into chromosomes that then group into homologous pairs and we used the rest of the people on the inside are centriols. The homologous pairs are lined up along the equator in metaphase 1.The spindle fibers have attached to the homologous pairs.we acted out each step up to prophase and will continue on Monday. Above are example pictures of the simulation. See if you can identify what these stages are. "in comment"

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Crossing over...

1)Crossing Over= two homologous pairs connect and exchange/switch a part of the homologous. Then a new cell is made.

2)Why are your siblings different from you?

You have different chromosomes because of crossing and everyone else because now we have different positives and negatives, so if everyone was exactly the same, only the same thing would be able to be contributed. This is called diversity.

Phases of Meiosis

1) Metaphase-Homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrad

2) Anaphase I- Spindles Fibers move homologous chromosomes to oppisite sides

3)Cytokinsis II- Nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter cells formed

4) Metaphase II- Chromosomes line up alomg equator, not in homologous pairs

5)Prophase I- Crossing over occurs

7)Anaphase II-Chromotids seperate

8) Metaphase I- Homologs line up alone equator.

9) Cytokinesis I- Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed.

R.R. #5

Tuesday, March 22, 2011


First, we went over homework. The similarities and differences of meiosis and mitosis are:

metaphase 1 the actual chromosomes are lined up
100% of DNA at the end
2 cells are created
(diploid cells)
(skin cell)

more steps homologous pairs
exchange DNA
(called crossing)
(prophase 1)
metaphase 1
homologous pairs are lined up
50% of DNA at the end
4 haploid cells created
(pollen,sperm, egg)

both divide
DNA chromosomes similar stages
meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis
both deal with chromosomes not pairs

Then, we did a class demonstration, the homologous pairs line up, then trade DNA with eachother. They split into four different cells. One cell has all Will, another one has all Carter, another one has half Carter half Will, and another with half Will half Carter.

That was our discussion today.

This is my 4th time blogging
Lexi P8

Friday, March 18, 2011

March 18th, 2011 Carter Stumpf

First, to start of class we started discussing the homeowkr from last night. The homework was to anwser three questions on the website. The questions were 1. If egg and sperm cells merge how much chromosones will each one have? 2. How does this relate to homologous pairs of chromosones? and 3. Could we start with a normal cell, go through mitosis and get a sperm/egg cell? Why not?. A homologous pair of chromosones are a set of chromosones that represent the same traits. One chromosone comes from the sperm and the second one comes from the egg. Without one set of chromosones you could have disabilities. Sperm and egg cell combine to make the zygote. A normal cell can't go into mitosis and make a sperm cell because when it goes into mitosis the normal cell would want to make another copy of a normal cell not a sperm or egg cell so therefore it is not possible. The purpose of miosis is to only create a sperm or egg cell. Males only get miosis to start happening when they hit puberty and females are born with it completed. A stemcell is a cell that has deicided what it is going to be yet. Then, Mr. Finley passed out a handout talking about Meiosis. Eukaryotic cells can only reproduce asexually. Then the class ended with a suprise fire drill so therefore we had to finish reading the handout outside.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Rohan Mallya 3/17/11

Today, we learned how the first cell of a baby was created. Here are the steps:

1. First, the male and female must go through intercourse (sex). Remember: sex is not reproduction! It is merely a delivery meathod so that the sperm and egg cells are at same place at the same time!

2. Next, the sperm cell has to fertilize egg cell in the womb. During fertilization, the two cell literally merge together. The egg is always an "x" chromosome and the sperm is either an "x" or a "y" chromosome. Each cell has half of the 46 chromosomes (23 homologous pairs). But, we learned that when you go through sex, the woman does not always end up pregnant. This is could be because the woman used birth controls, which keep the the sperm and egg cells from being in the same place at the same time. Or, this could be because the spaerm and the egg are never end up being in the same place at the same time.

3. The first cell of the new organism is formed.

Finley told us that for plants, the sex cells are the egg and the pollen. The pollen is kind of like the sperm cell, but for plants.

Here's a video to clear this all up:

There might be some vocabulary you might not know.


Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Science Class Period 8 3/16/11

Today we are finising up our presentations from yesterday. Mr.Finley checked our classwork/homework from yesterday. He is also checked the review from us picking the better simulation online. It was a video and then a video animation on If you didn't do the review, then you can do it tonight and turn it in for partial credit. Mr.Finley helped the groups move along with their presentations if they were having issues with their pictures or explantions. We went over the questions which were:

1) How does binary fission relate to cell division?
Binary fission and mitosis are both about the division of the cell, but binary fission seperates bacteria in prokaryotic cells. Cell division seperates eukaryotic cells.

2) What is a bud, and where does it form on an organism that reproduces asexually?
Budding is where a new cell starts to form on the side of a membrane of another cell, then it grows out the side, then after it is very large, it just seperates.

3) Compare sexual and asexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because in sexual reproduction, you need two cells, but in asexual reproduction, it reproduces faster, and it is only one cell. in sexual reproduction, the offspring looks similar to their parents. You would look identical in asexual reproduction since it's only one cell.

After we went over the questions we took notes on chromosomes in karyotypes. Which is a picture of your chromosones, and they are all single strands. They all have two strands. There are 46 all in total in the human body. There are 23 pairs of chromosones, the pairs are homologous, which means the same, they represent the same pair. Down syndrome is when we are missing one of the pair of chromosomes from the 21st pair. The pairs 1 through 22 we call autosomes. Sex chromosomes are either xx or xy. Xx is a girl, and xy is a boy.

Monday, March 14, 2011

March, 14th 2011 Talya

At the begining of class we had time to finish up our power points. Once we were all done with our power points Mr.Finley told us we had to present them. Each group presented their slide shows and Mr.Finley went over them. If any power point had some problems or incorrect information Mr.Finley asked the group what they saw was wrong with it and we would correct it together. Since we took about thirty minutes in groups to work on our power points and about ten minutes presenting them we didn't have time to do anything else. We also didn't have time to have every group go. Mr.Finley told us that it is not good to make your power point have too much going on. If you want it's okay to put a little movement but we shouldn't let it take over the presentation. Also, he didn't want us reading off of the board. He said it could be good to bullet point the main topics and then we could go deeper in them but it is boring for the audience to listen to us saying what they can read.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

March 10th,2011 CJS

Today, to start off class we seperated into groups and discussed the classwork from yesterday. The classwork was that we had to read and anwser the questions on page 97 in the science textbook. The questions had to deal with looking at a graph which distributed the time of cell divison. Also, we had to design an experiment which had to deal with testing to see if cell divison happened faster in hotter temperatures. Then Mr. Finley started to go into detail about what happens in each stage of cell divison which are prophase, metaphase,anaphase, and telophase. First, we started with prophase. in the beginning of prophase, the nucleus breaksdown and dissapears. Then, the chromomatin coils up and turn into a chromosones.. A chromomatin is a strand of dna. Chromosones are dna coiled up. The last thing that happens in prophase is that the centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell. Centrioles start to create spindle fibers as well. There are only two centrioles in the cell. Then we talked about metaphase. The first thing that happens in metaphase is that the spindle fibers get fully created. Next, the centrioles shoot out spindle fibers. Then, the spindle fibers connect to the chromosones in the kinetocore(centromere). A centromere(kinetocore) is the middle of the chromosone. Then the spindle fibers line up the chromosones in the middle of the cell. Then the next stage in the cell cycle is Anaphase. To start anaphase the spindle fibers pull the chromosones apart to opposite sides of the cell and they slowly start to break apart. Then telophase happens. In telophase the nucleaus starts to reform again. Then, the last part of telophase is if it is a plant cell it forms a cell wall and if it is an animal cell the membrane starts to break apart. Then class ended and that is where are notes for the day stopped.


Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Today in class we started off where we left off yesterday, the three groups. The first group was the textbook group we had to answer a few questions. To find the questions go to page 97 in the Cells textbook and answer questions 1-8.
After that we went to the group and went over the stages, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. We had a picture on the smart board and each cell was a different stage. Anaphase was when two cells are attached and are then pulled away from each other. An example to remember this is calling it the best friend stage. The best friends are being pulled away from each other. Another stage is prophase which is when a cell is crowded by a bunch of other cells. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up. Telophase is when the nucleus is formed. Cytokinesis is seperation of the cell membrane. After that we watched the simulation, took notes, and drew pictures of each stage. To watch the simulation go to the following link: Then after you watch the simulation take notes on the vocabulary and draw pictures of each stage.
-Simrin Kullar #4

Tuesday, March 8, 2011


Today we split up into to groups. There was one group that completed page 97 in the textbook. Here are the questions.

1. How long does growth phase of the cell cycle take? A. 1 hour B. 3 hours C. 8 hours D. 10 hours.

2. How much time does the cell cycle spend in interphase? A. 1 hour B. 10 hours C. 21 hours D. 22 hours

3. What is the total length of time it takes for the skin cell to complete one full cell cycle? A.10 hours B. 18 hours C.21 hours D. 22 hours

4. What phase of the cell cycle takes about 8 hours? A. DNA replication B. Mitosis C. Growth D. Preparation for cell division

5. Suppose another type of skin cell takes 44 hours to complete one cell cycle. If all of the phases are proportional to the length of time shown in the diagram, how long will the preparation for cell division phase last? A. 3 hours B. 6 hours C. 10 hours D. 20 hours

6. According to this diagram, what is the second stage in mitosis? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Telophase D. Cytokinesis

Then we moved to the next station and went over the worksheet labeled Examining Cell Division. Here are the answers

1. It needs to grow to get more water.


3. You can see some cells about to split and some cells have two nuclei. Also the chromosomes are in weird shapes.

4. Results may vary.

Then we looked at different cells in an onion root slice. There were cells in it that were in each step of mitosis. Anaphase was demonstrated by Mr Finley and another student were together like best friends and then two other people pulled them apart. They had there arms out to each other saying "Besty":(. Mr Finley then called Anaphase the "Besties Stage" to help people remember. He also demonstrated Prophase by crowding a student. The student was supposed to be DNA. During Prophase, he uncrowded the student and they had room to move around.

-Noah Kudman #4

Monday, March 7, 2011

3/7/11 Blog

Today in class we were working on the worksheet we got last Friday. We used microscopes to look for cells in the process of mitosis. Some reminders with the microscopes are that when you are using low power, remember you are looking at a lot of cells instead of only one cell. The worksheet answers are:

1) You are looking at cross-sectional slices of the the tip of an onion root. Why might you expect an onion root tip to have cells that are dividing?

A: Since it's the root of an onion, it needs to expand to get water that's why the root needs to expand.

2) Find and look at all three of the slices briefly. What are the dyed objects inside of the cell?

A: For our group the dyed objects are nuclei.

3) Is there evidence of cellular division? Explain.

A For our group we said that yes because there were two nuclei.

For #4 you had to draw pictures of the cells and for #5 you had to use the pictures!!!

- Maria Cordero #4

Friday, March 4, 2011

3/4/11 Blog

If you can't read the picture go to google images and type in "a cell going through mitosis."
He started to talk about when he went around yesterday telling us about the leader. What does it mean to be a team leader: to include everyone,making sure everyone stays on track, and also getting activities done in a certain amount of time. If you don't understand something about this ask Mr. Finley or leave a comment and hopefully I'll be able to answer it!!!!! Then, we took out our answers to the questions from the book. Answers below!!!!!

Section 3.1

1) Cell division is important because it makes more cells for you when you get grow, develop, and repair for multicellular organisms. Cell division is important because it creates a new organism.

2) Genetic material is organized in a eukaryotic cell is packaged in the form of a chromosome.

3) Repair: The cells grow in size but when they divide the two cells are identical, so if you slice your knee, they both fill in the whole. Growth: When you get taller or bigger, you will need more cells. Development: They help you grow and when they split they grow or else they would get smaller and smaller everytime they split.

4) DNA compacts before a eukaryotic cell divides because DNA is wrapped around proteins like a thread around a spool and compacted into structures called chromosomes, it shows up better under a microscope.

5) I think that injuries to the skin generally heal faster than injuries to the brain because your skin cells divide faster than the brain because the cell cycle is shorter.

Section 3.2

1) The two main parts of the cell cycle are Interphase first then mitosis second.

2) There are more organelles, more DNA, and when they split they grow x2.

3) The genetic material in two daughter cells are similar to the genetic material in the parent cell because they are genetically similar.

4) 1. Prophase-The nucleus membrane disappears.

2. Metaphase-lines up the chromosomes in the middle of the nucleus.

3. Anaphase-chromosomes seperate.

4. Telephase-new membranes form and split.

5) There is a cell membrane in the animal cell, a cell wall forms between them in a plant cell.

#6 we didn't go over

  • Then we took a look at cells going through mitosis.

  • When we use microscopes, we use them as a group, 2 microscopes per table.

  • The ones with pink labels don't work.

  • Then we filled out a worksheet, we're going to finish it tomorrow in class

If you people have any questions ask Mr. Finley or leave a comment and hopefully I'll be able to answer.


Thursday, March 3, 2011


Questions from class:

What is an example of a one celled eukaryotic organism?

Paramecium and Euglena. (above in photo).

What is an example of a multicellular organism?

Human, fox, hippo, dog, cat, sunflower, tulip, etc.

Which of the examples above would use mitosis to grow, develop, and repair cells? Why?
Multicellular organisms. This is because if you do something to injure a single-celled organsim, it wouldn't be able to repair itself because all of the organelles and cytoplasm would spill out, WHEREAS, humans would just reproduce cells until the area is healed. Also, if single celled organisms went through mitosis it would turn into TWO organisms instead of just a new cell that isn't organism.

How would the other use mitosis?

They would use mitosis to reproduce and make a new organsim.

What would be true about the two resulting cells?

They would be exact genetic copies of the parent cell. This is because the DNA is exactly copied so they are exactly the same, so all parameciums look exactly the same.
In comparison: When humans reproduce, the children will look kind of the same as the parents but not exactly, because of two pairs of genes not one.

Is this true about any two cells we compare in a multicellular organism?

No. This is because they have different functions (liver cell vs. brain cells) so there are different amounts of organelles that are used for different things (ex. leaf cells need more chloroplasts to photosynthesize.)

In comparison: If I take 2 cheek cells they will look exactly the same

Other notes:

MITOSIS is reproduction for single celled organisms.

Mitosis is cellular REPRODUCTION for single celled organisms whereas, mitosis is cellular DEVISION for multi-celled organisms. This is because reproduction is the creation of a new organism.

The 4 parts of mitosis are: (not in this order)





Parts of cell cycle (not necassarilly in this order)




Chromatid: One side of a chromosome, that connected at the centromere.
Kevin D. (4th)

Wednesday, March 2, 2011


The first thing we did was go over our homework, also Mr. Finley told us that on our blogs to out a number of how many that you have done.


chromatid-each of a pair of identical DNA molecules after DNA replication, joined at the centromere

chromatin-protein DNA complex making the chromosome

chromosomes-molecules or DNA complexed with specfic proteins responsible in

eukaryotes for storage and transmission of genetic information.

histones-5 kinds of proteins forming complexes with eukaryotic DNA

kinectochore-structure at centromere during Mitosis binding microtubules

nucleosomes-basic structural unit of eukaryotic chromosome forming"beads on a string"


What is Mitosis?

Steps taken to make a new cell.

Why do some cells reproduce faster than others?

You are more likely damage your skin because you get cuts and sunburns all the time. Some cells evolve so that they reproduce faster than others too.

Is the cell reproducing all the time?

No, it only reproduces only to repair and for growth, also devolpement.

Why would you spilt in half into to smaller things?

Well, the cells grow so during interphase, we can conclude that the cells grow!

What happens in teleophase?

Teleophase is when everything starts to reform and rebuild. Eventually getting back to normal.

What is the purpose of Cellular Reproduction?

It is that we are trying to split the DNA equally.

~Eica Wirth~

Happy Birthday Justin Bieber!!!!(one day late)
This is my 4th time blogging